A History of Light & Colour Measurement: Science in the by Sean F. Johnston

By Sean F. Johnston

This can be a background of the hidden workings of actual technological know-how - a technical endeavour embedded in a social context. It argues that this 'undisciplined' topic, straddling academia, trade and legislation, should be commonplace not just of twentieth century technological know-how, yet of its destiny.

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Sci. 3 402-16. 44 Brush S G 1970 'The wave theory of heat: a forgotten stage in the transition from the caloric theory to thermodynamics' BJHS 5 135-67. 45 For a discussion of the effects of these radiations on selenium, see Hempstead C 1977 Semiconductors 1833-1 919: an Historical Study of Selenium and some Related Materials (unpublished PhD thesis, Durham University) pp 34-5. 46 Hendry J 1986 James Clerk Maxwell and the Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (Bristol); Buchwald J Z 1994 The Creation of Scientijic Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves (Chicago).

2 Franqois-Marie R P 1700 Nouvelle De'couverte sur la Lumikre pour la Me'surer et en Compter les Degrbs (Paris), discussed in W E K Middleton's translation of Bouguer P 1729 Traite' d'optique sur la Gradation de la Lumikre (Paris; translation Toronto, 1961). 3 Huyghens C 1698 Cosmotheoros Sive de Terris Coelestibus Earumque Ornatu Conjecturae (The Hague). 4 Middleton op. cit. note 2. See also Penin F H 1948 'Whose absorption law' JOSA 38 72-4. 5 d'Ortous de Mairan J J 1721 Me'm. Acad. R. Sci. Paris 8-17.

Ihid. Rouguer's biographical details are from the translator's introduction and from DSB ~012,343-4. Lambert J H 1760 Photometria Sive Mensura et Gradibus Luminis, Colorum et Umbrae (Augsburg). Abridged German transl. Anding E 1892 in Ostwald's Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften, nos 31, 32 and 33 (Leipzig). See Bouguer op. cit. note 8 vol I11 p 57. R Smith's 1738 A Compleat System of Optiks in Four Books (Cambridge) was translated into German in 1755. , p ix. Middleton quotes a passage illustrating Lambert's preference for analysis rather than physical observation in his study of the hygrometer [from de Saussure H B 1783 Essais sur Z'Hygrome'trie (Neuchgtel) p ix]: 'Le cClkbre Lambert..

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