Compilers

A Tiny Handbook of R by Mike Allerhand (auth.)

By Mike Allerhand (auth.)

This short offers a roadmap for the R language and programming surroundings with signposts to additional assets and documentation.

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Meanðy ¼¼ "apple"Þ # What proportion of y is "apple"? [ meanðx [¼ 6 & y ¼¼ "apple"Þ # What proportion x[¼6 AND y¼¼"apple"? 28 & and | are vectorized for combining logical index vectors. Corresponding operators && and || result in single truth values, usually for purposes of flow control in a program. See help(Logic, package="base"), and the examples therein which show how to construct truth tables defining the logical operations. 3 Factors Factors represent categorical variables and are used as grouping indicators.

32 The order is relevant to the default appearance of tables and graphs, and also in modelling functions when a reference level is used for comparisons. See also function relevel to re-order levels so a given level is the first (reference) level. frame"), and help(subset). 34 For example the names of a data frame are its column names, most often representing the names of variables. The names of a list are the names of the objects collected in the list. An object’s names can be accessed using the names function, and then its parts can be accessed by name using a $ syntax.

21 15 See: help(plot) for the list of types and the letters used to specify them. See lty ‘‘and Line Type Specification’’ in help(par). 17 See: help(points) for a description of pch values. 18 See palette() for the colour names that are indexed when col is given a numeric vector. 19 See colours() for the available colour names. 20 See help(rgb) for RGB (Red,Green,Blue) colour values. 21 See: help(gray), help(rainbow), help(colorRamp), and functions in package help(RColorBrewer). 2 Graphs 53 [ plotð1:20; col¼1:20; pch¼16Þ # The range of colours in the default palette [ plotð1:20; pch¼16; col¼cð"red"; "green"; "blue"ÞÞ # Colour names ðrecycledÞ [ plotð1:20; pch¼16; col¼grayð0:20=20ÞÞ # Gray ramp [ plotð1:20; pch¼16; col¼colorRampPaletteðcð"blue"; "yellow"ÞÞð20ÞÞ # Colour ramp Grouping Points by Colour or Shape Groups of points on a scatter plot can be plotted in their own colours and shapes.

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