Aeronautics Astronautics

Aircraft Aerodynamic. Design Geometry and Optimization by Andras Sobester, Alexander I J Forrester

By Andras Sobester, Alexander I J Forrester

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Extra resources for Aircraft Aerodynamic. Design Geometry and Optimization

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3 Extreme geometrical flexibility – the initial design of a cantilever bracket (top left) and five snapshots of its intermediate geometries (in a left-to-right, top-to-bottom order) in the course of an evolutionary structural optimization run. The shapes are shaded with a stress contour map. exploiting the basin of attraction6 of the local optimum nearest to their starting geometry. 3. 7 Finally, a note on two subtly distinct forms of geometrical flexibility. Some schemes are designed to perturb existing, baseline shapes, thereby adding flexibility – this can usually be done in a cumulative way.

The number of shape variables doubles here, as we have now introduced a new set for a separate cargo lobe. We also have the R variables here, which determine the relative positions of the two lobes. 10, twofold. First, the cost of the optimization process (now conducted via a genetic algorithm, followed up by a Nelder and Mead pattern search to fine tune the best solution found by the genetic algorithm) has gone up by two orders of magnitude – we are into the tens of thousands of evaluations of the objective function.

While this allows much freedom in shaping the cross-section, in some cases it might be desirable to add the possibility of stretching the geometry – this is a simple alteration, but one that comes at the cost of another design variable C: Y(Z) = CZ N1 (1 − Z)N2 , Z ∈ [0, 1]. 17) This is now a fairly flexible geometry, but it is missing two key tricks, which are particularly important in the design of passenger airliner-type fuselages. We next look at ways of addressing these shortcomings. 5). Another flexibility issue is that we cannot use it to generate the wing-to-body fairing area so typical of transport aircraft.

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