Egypt

Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier

By James K. Hoffmeier

Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is without doubt one of the so much exciting rulers of historical Egypt. His abnormal visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have motivated educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be now not, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith yet quite a primitivist: that's, person who reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's thought was once the outdated country (2650-2400 B.C.E.), while the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only author God, in line with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come across that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey.
The publication additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, providing an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by means of students as motivated via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious studying of key texts, artistic endeavors, and archaeological reviews, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the influence of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.

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M. Bárta; Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), 186. 132 133 When the Sun Ruled Egypt 29 Why these temples were constructed, why at this time and this time only they were made, and why so close to the funerary complexes of the respective kings are probing questions that remain the subject of scholarly investigation, thought, and speculation. The fact that the size of the sun temples rivaled the actual pyramid complexes surely contributed to the diminished size and quality of the pyramids of this era.

1 Montu of Thebes (Karnak Temple). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. his bow while driving his chariot;30 on a ivory bracelet in Berlin, Montu stands before Thutmose IV as he smites his foes. 11), as having “the might of Montu in his limbs” . . “he was acquainted with the works of Montu” . . ”31 In all, Montu’s name occurs six times on that stela. Montu, then, enjoyed a rapid rise in power in Thebes with the 11th Dynasty rulers, but was soon eclipsed in the 12th Dynasty, when a new royal family followed who instigated the ascendancy of another Theban deity, namely, Amun.

Dieter Arnold and others have rejected the early notion that the Valley Temple was the place of embalming, but he does acknowledge that the closed and roofed causeway was designed to ensure to the ritual purity of the connection between the lower and upper temples (see Temples of Ancient Egypt [ed. Byron Shafer; Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997], 55). Further on the place of embalmment of the king in Old Kingdom pyramid complexes, see James K. Hoffmeier “Possible Origins of the Tent of Purification,” Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur IX (1981): 167–177.

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