Egypt

Ancient Egyptian Technology and Innovation by Ian Shaw

By Ian Shaw

This e-book examines the basic facts for lots of diverse points of switch and evolution in historical Egyptian know-how. It contains dialogue of the broader cognitive and social contexts, resembling the Egyptian propensity for psychological creativity and innovation, and the speed of swap in Egypt compared to different African, Mediterranean and close to jap states.

This booklet attracts not just on conventional archaeological and textual resources but additionally at the result of clinical analyses of old fabrics and on experimental and ethno-archaeological info. Case-studies examine these features of Egyptian society that made it both predisposed or actively against particular types of conservatism or innovation in fabric tradition, reminiscent of the ideas of stone-working, medication, mummification and enormous building. The booklet additionally comprises certain dialogue of the ways that the perform and improvement of Egyptian expertise interrelated with past due Bronze Age city society as an entire, utilizing town at Amarna as a case-study.

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Von Damow (2004) proposes that such cuneiform-literate scribes were not writing the Akkadian language but simply using Akkadian signs to represent what was essentially their own Canaanite language, while Wilhelm (1984) has suggested that similarities between the texts on cuneiform tablets found at Amarna and Hattuša perhaps indicate that Hittites were at least partially responsible for teaching Akkadian cuneiform to Egyptian scribes. The petrographic analyses of about 300 of the Amarna tablets by Yuval Goren et al.

Another category of evidence that has been regarded as potentially relevant to the ‘prehistory’ of the Egyptian writing system is the corpus of Predynastic and Early Dynastic potmarks that have survived on sherds excavated at many early sites in both Upper and Lower Egypt (see Helck 1990, van den Brink 1992 and Bréand 2005). The earliest of the potmarks appear at some sites in the Naqada I period (c. 4000-3600; see, for instance, Bréand 2005: 17 for a discussion of early examples from Adaïma) and the latest date to the end of the 1st Dynasty.

In many of the cultures in which the earliest writing systems developed, the emergence of the full-blown grammatically organised script seems to have been preceded by a phase during which the basic elements of the system were beginning to appear as symbols (and primarily, initially, as logograms or ideograms of various types). This pre-writing (or perhaps even quasi-writing) phase is particularly well-attested in Neolithic Mesopotamia, where three-dimensional clay tokens seem to have initially 26 3.

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